Thursday, March 3, 2011

Chronological History of Afghanistan

Part I (50,000 BCE - 652)

50,000 BCE-20,000 BCE

  • Archaeologists have identified evidence of stone age technology in Aq Kupruk, and Hazar Sum. Plant remains at the foothill of the Hindu Kush mountains indicate, that North Afghanistan was one of the earliest places to domestic plants and animals.

3000 BCE-2000 BCE

  • Bronze might have been invented in ancient Afghanistan around this time.
  • First true urban centers rise in two main sites in Afghanistan--Mundigak, and Deh Morasi Ghundai.
  • Mundigak (near modern day Kandahar)--had an economic base of wheat, barley, sheep and goats. Also, evidence indicates that Mudigak could have been a provincial capital of the Indus valley civilization.
  • Ancient Afghanistan--crossroads between Mesopotamia, and other Civilizations.

2000 BCE- 1500 BCE

  • Aryan tribes in Aryana (Ancient Afghanistan)
  • The City of Kabul is thought to have been established during this time.
  • Rig Veda may have been created in Afghanistan around this time.
  • Evidence of early nomadic iron age in Aq Kapruk IV.

600 BCE -- (There is some speculation about this date)

  • Zoroaster introduces a new religion in Bactria (Balkh)---(Zoroastrianism--Monotheistic religion)
    (about 522 BC)--Zoroaster dies during nomadic invasion near Balkh.

522 BCE--486 BCE

  • Darius the Great expands the Achaemenid (Persian) empire to its peak, when it takes most of Afghanistan., including Aria (Herat), Bactriana (Balk, and present-day Mazar-i-Shariff), Margiana (Merv), Gandhara (Kabul, Jalalabad and Peshawar), Sattagydia (Ghazni to the Indus river), Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta), and Drangiana (Sistan).
  • The Persian empire was plagued by constant bitter and bloody tribal revolts from Afghans living in Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta)

329-326 BCE

  • After conquering Persia, Afghanistan is invaded by Alexander the Great. Alexander conquers Afghanistan, but fails to really subdue its people.
  • Constant revolts plague Alexander.

323 BCE

  • Greeks rule Bactria (Northern Afghanistan)

170 BCE-160 BCE

  • Bactria--Parthia

50 AD

  • Kushan rule, under King Kanishka
  • Graeco-Buddhist Gandharan culture reach its height.

220 AD

  • Kushan empire fragments into petty dynasties.

400 AD

  • Invasion of the White Huns. They destroy the Buddhist culture, and leave most of the country in ruins.


  • Independent Yaftalee rule in Afghanistan.

550 AD

  • Persians reassert control over all of what is now Afghanistan.
  • Revolts by various Afghan tribes.

650 AD

  • The world's first oil paintings are painted in the Bamiyan caves by Buddhists.

652 AD

  • Arabs introduce Islam



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